Samhain Meaning, Celtic Blessings and Halloween Traditions

Samhain 2024 Meaning, Celtic Blessings and Halloween Traditions

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When Samhain 2024 arrives, we say goodbye to warm summer days and hello to a season of longer nights and a cooler season. As the sun’s rays weaken, Nature herself seems to whisper ancient secrets, inviting us to embrace mystery, shadows, and darkness from the veil that grows thin.

This sacred pagan holiday is full of spiritual meaning, including transformation, protection, death, ancestors, and shadow work. In this post, we’ll explore Samhain’s traditional Celtic roots and how modern witches and spiritual practitioners celebrate this festival today!

Many Pagans, Witches, and those interested in Nature Spirituality celebrate the seasonal cycles. Sometimes referred to as the Wheel of the Year, it consists of eight celebrations. Four of these festivals (ImbolcBeltaneLughnasadh, and Samhain) are rooted in Celtic history and origins.

The other four (Spring EquinoxSummer SolsticeAutumn Equinox, and Winter Solstice) represent the sun’s location. I created a complete guide to each season, including history, traditions, symbols, correspondences, ritual ideas, and how you can celebrate.

Please note that I make every effort to ensure this information is correct and accurate through my own experiences and referencing sources throughout AND at the bottom of this article.

Posts on this site may contain affiliate links that allow me to earn a small commission from your purchases (at no extra cost to you!)

Samhain Pronunciation

Samhain is pronounced SOW-in, but is sometimes pronounced Sah-Win. Some people believe it means “summer’s end,” while others debate it means “fire of peace.”

For the Celts, who lived during the Iron Age in what is now Ireland, Scotland, the U.K. and other parts of Northern Europe, Samhain (meaning literally, in modern Irish, “summer’s end”) marked the end of summer and kicked off the Celtic new year.

Time – What Is Samhain? What to Know About the Ancient Pagan Festival That Came Before Halloween

When is Samhain 2024?

Samhain is a cross-quarter fire celebration and the halfway point between the Autumn Equinox (Mabon) and the Winter Solstice (Yule).

Since ancient Celtic people recognized sunset as the start of the day (see C. Julius Caesar quote below), Samhain is typically celebrated at sundown on October 31st until sundown on November 1st. (May 1st in the Southern Hemisphere).

Early sources describe Samhain as a three-day, three-night festival. However, some spiritual practitioners are very passionate about celebrating at the exact halfway point between the equinox and solstice and celebrate based on current astrological timing.

There is also evidence to suggest ancient people celebrated Samhain on the new moon closest to the Autumn Equinox.

The Gauls marked the year into just two havles, the dark or winter half being Sam or Samonios, the light half Gam or its Latinized form, Gamonios.

….Samonios, the dark half of the year, was reckoned first in the Celtic calendar. The festival marking the beginning of Samonios was Samhuinn (Samhain), a three-day feast celebrated on the new moon closest to the autumnal equinox.

The Book of Celtic Myths
When is Samhain 2024?

What is Samhain?

Samhain is a time of year when the veil between this world and the Otherworld is said to be thinnest. This Pagan holiday marks the end of the harvest season and is considered to be one of the two most important fire festivals celebrated by ancient Celtic people (the other being Beltane).

Samhain represents the ending of one year and the beginning of another, which is why in modern times, it’s often called the Witches’ New Year.

Caesar described this in detail when writing about the Gallic Wars:

All the Gauls assert that they are descended from the god Dis, and say that this tradition has been handed down by the Druids.

For that reason they compute the divisions of every season, not by the number of days, but of nights; they keep birthdays and the beginnings of months and years in such an order that the day follows the night.

C. Julius Caesar (translated to English)

Samhain Traditions and History

Let’s take a look at Samhain traditions and how they’ve evolved throughout time. These practices give us an interesting look at how this festival has been honored and adapted by different cultures over time. 

Fire Rituals

Hearth fires in family houses were left to burn out while the crops were harvested during this time of year. After the harvest was collected, everyone would gather with local Druid priests and priestesses to ignite a shared fire using a wheel that would scrape and spark a fire. 

The fire wheel symbolized the sun, and eventually, everyone would return home with a flame from the town’s bonfire to light their home’s hearth.

Samhain was also a time for divination about the future to plan for the coming year. Samhain festivities typically included bonfires, parade-like processions through town in animal skins or costumes as symbolic sacrifices to the deities of the Otherworld, and feasting on foods that were laid out on Samhain altars.

The bonfires were not the only fire rituals associated with Samhain. A popular ritual called “lating the witches” involved a solemn candlelit procession, the purpose of which was the discovery of dark magic.

If a candle flickered or died out during the procession, it meant that the person carrying it was a certain victim of witches, and special precautions would be taken to protect him or her.

The Book of Celtic Myths

Slaughtering Livestock

Not only does Samhain mark an end to harvesting crops for winter storage, but it was also traditionally a time used by early peoples to cull their herds. Farmers would bring their livestock down from summer grazing pastures in the hills and slaughter some animals to feed themselves through the long winter months ahead.

Driving cattle between two fires to protect them from disease or evil spirits lurking among the smoke of the bonfires was a popular Samhain tradition during this time.

Transition To Winter

Samhain is deeply rooted in the cyclical rhythms of Nature, but carries many practical protection significance as well! As the temperatures outside dropped, communities faced the challenge of surviving the freezing cold Winter months again.

Samhain became associated with death due to the slaughter of animals and because Samhain marked the beginning of Winter and the end of the summer season. As a result, Samhain became associated with ghosts, spirits, certain types of Fae, black magic, communing with the dead, and feasts.

The Corn Spirit

Note: Remember, ancient Celtic people had never heard of the Native American maize corn we know today. When using the word corn dolly, imagine a grain dolly.

At the end of each harvest season, the Celtic people would not harvest a limited amount of grain. It was thought that if all the plants were harvested, the Corn Spirit would be displaced, and it would drift away, unable to find its way back.

The leftover grain would be crafted to look like a man, woman, or significant spiritual symbol. Since the corn dolly symbolized the spirit of the Corn, it was often included in important ceremonies and celebrations. Come Spring, the corn dolly would be ceremonially burned before planting any new crops for the year.

The Corn Spirit

Why is The Veil Thin During Samhain?

Ancient Celtic people believed that on Samhain, the doorway to the Otherworld was open, and Fae (Sídhe-folk), or spirits of dead ancestors, could walk among the living. During this time, Fae Folk would reveal themselves to humans.

For this reason, they prepared meals for their departed kin and placed lit candles in their windows to guide them home. They would also make offerings of milk and bread around places known as Sidhe mounds; this was sometimes called a fairy tax.

To the Welsh, the Otherworld was Annwn, also a land of youth and plenty.

…The door to Annwn may of course be an allusion to the feast of Samhain, the solar feast day on which the doorway to the underworld was believed to lay open. The name Annwn means “deep” or “under earth.”

…Annwn came to be called Avalon, the name by which the Otherwold is most commonly known today. The name Avalon is believed to derive from the Welsh Ynys Afallach, “Isle of Apples,” a reference to the abundant fruit of the Otherworld.

The Book of Celtic Myths

Samhain 2024 Spiritual Meaning

Nature appears to be dying all around us, but in reality, it’s resting just beneath the surface, preparing for renewal and new life once Spring arrives. Remember to set new goals for yourself, too!

Now is the time to say goodbye to the past year. Saying farewell to those we have lost while celebrating and honoring their life. During Samhain, children and adults face the reality of death but are given the opportunity to embrace and come to terms with it.

At Samhain, we can reflect on our accomplishments and failures from this past year and what we can do to improve ourselves and our lives moving forward. Do you have any unresolved projects? Now is a great time to finish them up so you can start the new year fresh!

Samhain Correspondences

Every year at Samhain, witches, Pagans, and spiritual practitioners, commune with ancestor spirits, celebrate the harvest, honor deities, and decorate altars with symbols and correspondences.

They may create a sacred space outdoors or within their home by lighting candles in every room and placing them in circles around themselves. Fresh herbs are usually used for extra potency. Here are some Samhain correspondences to help you celebrate Samhain 2024!

Samhain Spiritual Intentions

Honoring Ancestors

Connect and pay respects to your ancestors or deceased loved ones. You may also seek their guidance and wisdom.

Shadow Work

Dive deep into your own psyche to confront and work through unresolved issues and fears. There’s no shame in consulting a therapist while you do this! Acknowledge and release any lingering grief or sadness for deep emotional healing.

Fae Mythology and Folklore

Since the veil is thin, Fae folk are often believed to be close by during Samhain. Leave offerings such as milk, honey, or small treats on your doorstep or backyard as a gesture of respect and to pay the fairy tax.

Dream Work

Pay attention to your dreams during the season of Samhain. Keep a dream journal section in your Grimoire or Wiccan Book of Shadows. Explore the messages and symbolism and messages that appear in your subconscious mind.

Transformation

Be open to new growth and embrace change. Contemplate what the cycles of life and death mean to you. Set clear intentions for personal and spiritual growth in the coming year.

New Journeys

Express gratitude for this year’s blessings and lessons. Reflect on your journey and let go of toxic thoughts, habits, and relationships that no longer serve your higher self.

Protection Rituals

Create a spiritual shield of protection around yourself, your loved ones, and your home. Try designing your own protection sigils!


Rest and Play

Immerse yourself in physical, emotional, or spiritual healing practices. Journal or express yourself creatively through art, music, writing, or however your inner child would like! Play!

Samhain Food

Remember, any local seasonal food in your area is a perfect choice for a Samhain celebration and can vary for every spiritual practitioner! Samhain represents the transition from sunny days to the darker and colder days of winter.

As Nature changes, so does our food. By including these ingredients in your Samhain meal, you’ll align yourself with the natural rhythms of the earth while also honoring them. A few additional ideas include spiced cake, gourds, squash, nuts, seeds, corn, or fermented foods.

If you’re looking for a recipe idea, I highly recommend this article by The Wondersmith, A Ritual for Celebrating Halloween or Samhain Alone, Plus Sumac Sweet Potato Snacks.

Apples

Apples are abundant during the fall, and they hold significance in Samhain traditions. Try making apple pies, apple crisps, or caramel apples as sweet treats.

Barmbrack

According to Irish American Mom, “Barmbrack was eaten by the Irish at Halloween as part of their fortune telling rituals for Samhain.

Mulled Wine or Cider

Warm, spiced beverages like mulled wine or cider are perfect for celebrating Samhain. Infuse them with cinnamon, cloves, and orange peel for a cozy, aromatic experience.

Pumpkin

Embrace the spirit of the season with a warm and hearty pumpkin soup. You can add spices like cinnamon, nutmeg, and ginger for extra flavor. I also love making pumpkin bread!

Soul Cakes

These small, round cakes are often baked with spices like nutmeg and cinnamon. (see Baking and Soul Cakes below for more info)

Mushrooms

Samhain and the other world are often associated with mushrooms. Try adding them to dishes like stuffed mushrooms or a creamy mushroom risotto.

The apple is a symbol of immortality. A branch of the apple which bore budes, flowers and fully-ripened fruit (sometimes known as the Silver Bough), was a kind of magical charm which enabled its possessor to enter into the land of the Gods, the Underworld, in Celtic mythology.

In the old English ballad, Thomays the Rymour (Thomas the Rhymer), the Fairy Queen warns Thomas against eating any of the apples and pears which hung in her garden, for to eat the food of the dead ensures there will be no return to the world of the living.

Scott Cunningham
Samhain candle

Samhain Colors

  • Black
  • Deep Purple
  • Silver / Grey
  • Orange
  • Gold
  • Dark Red

Samhain Symbols

Besom and Brooms

Often used to spiritually sweep away negative energy and clear the space for rituals or ceremonies. Besoms can also be used for ritual purification.

Bones and Skulls

Symbols of death, mortality, and reminders of the impermanence of life. Bones or skulls can be incorporated into altars or used in Samhain rituals.

The Scythe

The scythe is closely associated with the harvest and the harvesting of crops. It symbolizes the end of the agricultural cycle. The last of the crops are gathered, and the growing season is over.

Jack-o’-Lanterns

Carved pumpkins, turnips, or gourds with eerie faces or protective symbols are classic Samhain symbols. They represent light in the darkness and ward off negative energy.

Spiral

Spirals represent spiritual progress, the development of the soul, and the cyclical nature of life. They’re also sometimes used to represent Spirit or Aether.

Psychopomps

Greek – a spirit, human, or being who guides souls that have recently crossed over. They help them transition into the afterlife from the mortal realm. A few examples are Ancestors, Hecate, Hermes (Greek), Aurora Borealis (Inuits), Cuckoos, Grim Reaper, and Sparrows.

Ravens Huginn and Muninn

Animal Symbolism

Cats

Samhain and Halloween have long been associated with cats, especially black cats. In Celtic mythology, cats were believed to have protective qualities and the ability to ward off evil spirits. Cats are able to travel between the physical and spiritual realms.

Spiders

Spiders are associated with the weaving of fate and are keepers of ancient wisdom. Their intricate webs symbolize the interconnectedness of life and death, making them relevant to Samhain.

Moths

These creatures of the night are allies of the dark, representing secrecy, shadows, and transformation. Moths represent trusting in darkness; believe in your intuition even when things seem confusing, and there is no light to show you the way.

Crows

These fascinating birds are cunning, a bit devious, and can adapt to any situation. Their association with death is not meant to cause fear but is instead a reminder of the natural transition that awaits us all.

Ravens

These beautiful creatures always make me think of Odin’s ravens, Huginn and Muninn, in Norse mythology. These birds fed off the bodies of fallen warriors on the battlefield who were headed to Valhalla. They represent Odin’s intelligence and symbolize the powerful memories of deceased loved ones.

Scorpions

Scorpions symbolize transformation and rebirth due to their ability to shed their exoskeletons. They are seen as creatures of intensity and power, reflecting the profound changes associated with Samhain.

Swans

Creatures of grace and beauty who are believed to be psychopomps, helping to guide souls to the Otherworld. (see the quote below for more information on swans’ connection with Samhain).

The swan was revered by the earliest Celts, as far back as the Urnfield and Hallstatt cultures (circa 800 BCE – 500 BCE). Although they are creatures of water, swans were, oddly, connected with the sun, sometimes even appearing as bearers of the chariot of the sun god.

…Many of the later Celtic Gods appear in tales as swans or with the ability to change into swans. The ability seems closely connected with women, although in some stories male gods have the same power, invariably with a female of the same ability.

As seen in the tale of Aenghus, both the god and his magical lover have the ability to transform into swans during the festival of Samhain.

The Book of Celtic Myths

Crystals, Metals and Stones

  • Moonstone
  • Amethyst
  • Carnelian
  • Obsidian
  • Black Tourmaline
  • Bloodstone
  • Silver
  • Iron
  • Onyx
amethyst
Samhain Pumpkin Sacrifice Ritual

Incense, Candles, and Scents

  • Cinnamon
  • Nutmeg
  • Cloves
  • Honey
  • Pine
  • Star Anise
  • Sage
  • Pumpkin

Samhain Rituals and How to Celebrate

Samhain is a time to communicate with the spirits of loved ones who have passed. It’s also a chance to connect with ancestors or deities and work with them during this important holiday. Here are some ritual and celebration ideas to help get you started!

If you want to connect with the spiritual intentions of transformation, I highly recommend doing a cord-cutting ritual to sever negative spiritual connections binding you to any relationships, places, attachments, or places.

How to celebrate Samhain video

YouTube video
Samhain Celebration Ideas and Inspiration including a pumpkin sacrifice ritual

Dumb Supper Ritual

This Samhain ritual is often referred to as a “dumb” supper (a synonym for silent or mute). The dinner is held in silence to respect the spirits and give them a chance to communicate.

Begin with an empty place setting for those you would like to honor. You can include a picture of them, decorate with things or trinkets they love, or cook their favorite meal or food.

Since the veil is thin at this time, you can help guide them to your table by placing candles in the windows (typically black or white ones). All electronics are put away. You can also write messages to the spirits and release them by burning the paper in a candle flame.

Personally, I enjoy telling stories about my loved ones to help keep their memories alive. Especially stories that make us laugh and remember how lucky we are to have known them. I also decorate my table and altar with their photos. Feel free to celebrate however you like!

Baking and Soul Cakes

Nothing makes me feel more festive than baking in my kitchen and filling up my home with delicious smells! Anything pumpkin or apple-related is perfect, like bread, cookies, or pies.

I think it’s important to mention Soul Cakes because I often hear new practitioners asking about them, and you can see how going door-to-door for treats emerged from this practice.

Underprivileged people would go door to door on All Souls’ Eve, promising to recite prayers for the family’s deceased loved ones. They would often be given a Soul Cake in exchange.

By the ninth century, Christianity had spread into Celtic lands, where it gradually blended with and supplanted older pagan rites. In 1000 A.D. the church designated November 2 as All Souls’ Day, a time for honoring the dead. Celebrations in England resembled Celtic commemorations of Samhain, complete with bonfires and masquerades. 

Poor people would visit the houses of wealthier families and receive pastries called soul cakes in exchange for a promise to pray for the souls of the homeowners’ dead relatives. Known as “souling,” the practice was later taken up by children, who would go from door to door asking for gifts such as food, money, and ale.

History.com – Halloween Trick or Treating Origins

I personally don’t make Soul Cakes, mostly because it’s likely Christianity had already immersed itself into the Celtic culture by the time Soul Cakes were given out. I’m always trying to find ways to deconstruct, evaluate, and remove any Christian beliefs from my practice. But to each their own!

Feel free to bake them if they resonate with you! Check out this recipe for Soul Cakes for an Old-Fashioned All Hallows Eve.

Fire Festival Bonfire

Samhain is a fire festival, and historically, large bonfires were created to ward off evil spirits or bad luck for the coming year. The ashes were usually spread out into farmers’ fields to guarantee a bountiful crop for the following year.

A bonfire goes back to the days of the Druids when the surrounding villagers doused their hearth fires and then lit them from a flame carried from the Samhain fire.

While modern power companies have made this tradition moot, the bonfire still aligns with those old rites. Try having a formal ceremony where you light a candle from the fire that you then bring into your house.

You may also want to practice scrying by gazing at the bottom of the flames, observing what visions flash within your mind.

Samhain: Rituals, Recipes & Lore for Halloween by Diana Rajchel
Fire Festival Bonfire

Carve Jack O’ Lanterns

This is mostly just my excuse to binge on roasted pumpkin seeds. LOL! Not only is it fun to carve pumpkins with friends and loved ones, but it also can help protect your home from harmful spirits.

Jack-o-lanterns were initially carved potatoes or turnips filled with coal. They would place them in windows or doorways to frighten and scare away evil spirits.

Draw or design your pumpkins with sigilsbind runessymbols, or spiritual meanings you’re drawn to, like sacred geometry or the pentagram.

Turnip Jack o' lantern

Divination Work

Divination work is deeply connected to Samhain due to the thinning of the veil. Pay attention to any animals you come into contact with, especially ones you would not usually see.

As the boundary between the spiritual and physical realms blurs, divination helps make it easier to communicate with the Otherworld. Tap into ancient wisdom, hidden truth, and messages from ancestors or loved ones.

So, if you’re seeking answers to your questions or trying to gain deeper insight into your life path, here are some divination ideas to help get you started.

Scrying Divination
Magic Beginners Need To Know

Casting Bones
How To Read and Throw Bones

Pendulum Board 101
An Ultimate Guide For Beginners

How To Make a Sigil
Powerful Sigil Magic For Beginners

How to Read Smoke Divination
The Forgotten Art of Libanomancy and Capnomancy

Ouija Board
Everything You Need To Know

Egg Cleanse Meaning
and Powerful Ritual Interpretation

Ogham Alphabet
Meanings, History, and Divination For Beginners

Candle Wax Reading
Revealing Hidden Meanings and Magic Symbols

Dice Divination With Numerology
Roll To Reveal Your Powerful Fate

I highly recommend you check out my YouTube video series about the basics of Candle Magic for beginners. It includes a video on Candle Divination, too!

Samhain 2024 Ancestor Candle Ritual

Here’s a simple Samhain candle ritual to connect with the energy of this season while also honoring your ancestors and passed loved ones.

Gather Supplies Needed

  • Any colored candle you’d like to represent the spirit of the season
  • Photos or mementos of your ancestors.
  • A small dish or candleholder
  • Incense or herbs associated with Samhain or communication (rosemary, garden sage, cedar, garlic, cinnamon, etc.)
  • Matches or a lighter

Prepare and Cleanse Your Sacred Space

Set up your sacred space by arranging the photos or mementos of your ancestors in a circle or semicircle around the candle holder. Place the incense or herbs nearby.

Burn your herbs or cleansing method of choice to remove any negative energy or unwanted spirits. Allow the smoke to purify the area to create a calm and sacred atmosphere.

Me Cleansing My Candle with Moon Water
Me Cleansing My Candle with Moon Water

Center Yourself

Sit quietly and take a few deep breaths to center yourself. Focus on your intention for the ritual: connecting with your ancestors and seeking their guidance and wisdom.

Light The Candle

Light the candle you chose to represent the spirit of the season. As you do so, say the following words:

Drawn to wisdom, the question I bring

In shadows deep, I take my wing

With magic’s sway and spirits’ say

I seek the truth on Samhain’s day.”

Amanda Brethauer – The Peculiar Brunette

Invoke Your Ancestors

Gaze at the candle flame and visualize it as a gateway between the physical and spiritual world. Imagine the veil between the living and the deceased growing thinner with each passing moment. Call upon your ancestors by saying:

Ancestors of blood and spirit

I welcome you to this sacred space.

As the veil thins, draw near to me,

Share your wisdom and love with grace.

Amanda Brethauer – The Peculiar Brunette

Feel the presence of your ancestors around you as you sit quietly. Share your thoughts, memories, and gratitude with them. Listen for any messages or insights they may have for you.

If you have offerings for your ancestors (such as food, drink, or gifts), place them on the altar as a gesture of respect and gratitude.

Close the Ritual

When you are finished, thank your ancestors for their presence and guidance. Blow out the candle, symbolizing the closing of the doorway between the physical and spiritual world. Take a few moments to ground yourself and imagine your spiritual energy returning to your physical body.

Express your gratitude to your ancestors by saying:

My gratitude to my ancestors and spirits so wise,

In your company, no secrets to hide,

Your love and guidance, a blessing so bright,

As I quench this flame, I embrace your light

Amanda Brethauer – The Peculiar Brunette

Allow the candle to remain on your altar or in a safe place throughout the Samhain season. You can revisit this ritual as often as you like, deepening your connection with your ancestors and the spiritual energies of Samhain.

Create a Corn Doll

Creating a corn dolly is such a fun way to celebrate Samhain. Corn dollies are traditionally crafted from the last sheaves of grain harvested during the season. It’s great to do with kids or friends and is a terrific way to immerse yourself in the season. Here’s an excellent tutorial by Sally Pointer.

You can also visit a local farm or corn maze! Take a hayride to a pumpkin patch, and eat freshly made donuts or apple cider.

Trick-or-Treating

For those with children, dressing up in costumes tends to be one of the more popular aspects of the season. However, do you know the history of Trick-or-treating (other than the Soul Cakes listed above)?

During ancient Celtic festivities, locals dressed up in animal-skin costumes to ward off evil spirits. Food was placed outside to satisfy troublesome spirits.

In later centuries, people began dressing as ghosts, demons, and other malevolent creatures, performing antics in exchange for food and drink. This custom, known as mumming, dates back to the Middle Ages and is thought to be an antecedent of trick-or-treating.

History.com – Halloween Trick or Treating Origins

Samhain Journal Prompts

Explore your connection to the natural world during this season. How can you feel the energy of the earth shifting?

Write about an ancestor or loved one who has passed away. How do you honor their memory?

Explore your relationship with the darkness and the unknown. How can you find comfort and wisdom in these aspects of life?

How do you spiritually protect your home? Describe any rituals or practices you use.

What fears or shadows are you ready to confront and transform during Samhain?

Have you recently received any dreams or intuitive insights? How might they be connected to the energy of Samhain?

How does divination influence your Samhain rituals?

Explore the symbolism of the Jack-o’-Lantern and how it relates to your own inner illumination.

Write about a significant encounter or experience you’ve had with a supernatural being or unexplained phenomenon.

Samhain Tarot Spread for Shadow Work

Many spiritual practitioners prefer to do a tarot reading during Samhain! Here’s a spread idea to help get you started.

  • Card 1: (Represents your Shadow)
    • What aspect of my shadow self should I focus on during Samhain?
  • Card 2: (Recognize)
    • How can I acknowledge and accept my shadow without judgment?
  • Card 3: (Transformation)
    • What steps can I take to transform and heal this part of myself?
  • Card 4: (Release)
    • What do I need to let go of to embrace this transformation?
  • Card 5: (Integration)
    • How can I integrate the shadow work lessons l learned into my daily life?

I hope you found this article about Samhain 2024 helpful! Lots of love to you, and remember, as always…

Sources

C. Julius Caesar. Caesar’s Gallic War. Translator. W. A. McDevitte. W. S. Bohn. 1st Edition. New York. Harper & Brothers. 1869. Harper’s New Classical Library.

Cunningham, Scott. Cunningham’s Encyclopedia of Magical Herbs. Llewellyn Publications. 1 October 1985.

How Trick-or-Treating Became a Halloween Tradition” History.com 3 October 2019 https://www.history.com/news/halloween-trick-or-treating-origins

Lang, Cady. What Is Samhain? What to Know About the Ancient Pagan Festival That Came Before Halloween. Time Magazine. 2018 October 30.

Lecouteux, Claude. Demons and Spirits of the Land: Ancestral Lore and Practices. Inner Traditions. 20 July 2015.

Rajchel, Diana. “Samhain: Rituals, Recipes & Lore for Halloween” Llewellyn Publications. September 8, 2015

Segalov, Michael . “Why Pagans Spend Halloween Baking Bread” Vice. 26 October 2015 https://www.vice.com/amp/en/article/d754yx/why-pagans-spend-halloween-baking-bread

“The Book of Celtic Myths.” Adams Media, a division of F + W Media, Inc. 2017

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